Officially the Arab Republic of Egypt is a transcontinental country spanning over the northeast corner of Africa and the southwest corner of Asia. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the red sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922 when it gained independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt declared itself a republic, and in 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1980, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognizing Israel. The country continues to face challenges from terrorism, political unrest, and economic underdevelopment.
With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt’s territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt’s residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centers of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta. Egypt is considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide. Egypt’s economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East and is projected to become one of the largest in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt overtook South Africa and became Africa’s second-largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Egypt is also known to be the first advanced civilization in the history of the human animal, Egypt first appeared around 3150 before Christ (about 5168 years ago). This was under the rule of Iry-Hor, Shendjw (Crocodile), Sekhen (Ka), and Serqet (Scorpion). There may have been more but this is unclear because these rulers were not from a dynasty time. These rulers are named as Predynastic rulers or also Dynasty Zero. The first dynasty was first ruled by Narmer which is believed to be Menes and may have unified upper and lower Egypt. After Narmer followed Hor-Aha, Djer, Djet, Den, Anedjib, Semrkhet, Qa’a, Sneferka and Horus Bird in the first dynasty of Egypt. With more than 30 Dynasties followed Egypt stood the test of time, they had many leaders and rulers, and the land of Egypt has been ruled by many other countries for a very long period, but after all Egypt still exists.